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  • Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II, son of Asaf Jah I, rose to power after succession problems.
  • The chaos of succession paved the way for British and French powers to establish their own foothold in the Asaf Jahi politics by supporting rival contenders.
  • The French supported Salabat Jung to become the Nizam and the British incited Nizam Ali Khan, his brother, to rise in rebellion against him.
  • In 1763, Nizam Ali Khan succeeded to the throne and became the second Asaf Jah.
  • After becoming the Nizam, he shifted the capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad.
  • During Nizam Ali Khan’s reign, the British gained political prominence in the Deccan. In 1795, Nizam Ali Khan was defeated in a battle by Marathas.
  • To safeguard his position, he entered into the Subsidiary Alliance with the British in 1798 which made him subservient to the British power.
  • From 1799, a British Resident was stationed in Hyderabad who supervised the governance of the state.
  • In the third Anglo-Mysore War (1789-1792), the Nizam supported the British against Tipu Sultan. -->

  • Mahboob Ali Khan was merely two and a half years old when he was declared the sixth Nizam.
  • He was formally acknowledged as the Nizam again after attaining majority in 1884.
  • He is remembered for his extravagant lifestyle.
  • He went on elaborate hunts and hosted royal guests like the Prince of Wales, the Duke of Connaught, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, Grand Duke Alexander of Russia amongst others.
  • He was the first Nizam who wore western clothes and conversed in English.
  • An entire wing of his palace was dedicated to his magnificent wardrobe, the largest in the world. It is said that he never wore the same suit twice!
  • He was called ‘Mahboob Pasha’ or 'Beloved King' by the common people who also believed that the Nizam’s spirit was so holy that a mere invocation of his name could ward off the poison of snake bite.
  • In 1908, when a disastrous flood hit Hyderabad killing 15,000 people, the Nizam provided refuge to his subjects in his palace.
  • He also tried to appease the Hindu goddess Bhavani by paying homage to the deity as it was popularly believed that her anger incited the calamity. Being a Muslim ruler, this was an unusual move.
  • He died at the age of 45 in 1911.

  • Mahboob Ali Khan was succeeded by his son, Mir Osman Ali Khan, as the seventh and the last Nizam in 1911.
  • He was one of the richest men in the world.
  • A significant chunk of his wealth was accumulated through nazar or valuable gifts offered to the ruler by court attendees as an expression of respect and loyalty.
  • Nizam Osman Ali Khan made some significant contributions to the Hyderabad state like the building of Osmania University, Osmania Hospital, the State Central Library and the High Court.
  • He was one of the five Indian Princes who was granted the highest salute of 21 guns by the British.
  • For his support to the British in the First World War, he was conferred with the title of ‘His Exalted Highness.’
  • Nizam Osman Ali Khan decided to declare Hyderabad an independent state on June 11 1947. This was not supported by the Indian National Congress.
  • The Indian government negotiated with the Nizam to incorporate the Hyderabad State into India but it failed to work out.
  • Thus, it launched an action code named ‘Operation Polo,’ in Hyderabad in 1948 following which the Nizam’s troops surrendered and the Hyderabad State was integrated into the Union of India.


  • The Salar Jungs were one of the highest ranked noble families under the Nizams of Hyderabad.
  • ‘Salar’ means ‘Lead’ and ‘Jung’ translates to battle or war. Thus, Salar Jung implies the leader in battle. Five members of this family served as Diwan or Prime Ministers out of which the title was conferred on three most important members. They are:
    1. Mir Turab Ali Khan, Mukhtar-ul-Mulk Salar Jung I
    2. Mir Laiq Ali Khan Salar Jung II
    3. Mir Yousuf Ali Khan Salar Jung III
  • The Hyderabad state was undergoing a financial crisis but the situation improved with the efforts of Mir Turab Ali Khan Salar Jung I.
  • During the First War of Independence in 1857, Salar Jung I convinced the Nizam Nasir-ud-Daula to side with the British. When the uprising collapsed, the British richly rewarded the Hyderabad state.
  • He also introduced postal services in the State and connected it with the Bombay-Madras railway line.
  • After him, his son, Mir Laiq Ali Khan Salar Jung II assumed the office of the Diwan.
  • The third Salar Jung, Mir Yousuf Ali Khan had a private art collection of immense value.
  • This collection was housed in the ancestral palace of Salar Jung which was later converted into a museum called the ‘Salar Jung Museum.’
  • The museum was inaugurated in 1951 by then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.


  • The Nizams of Hyderabad belonged to the Asaf Jahi dynasty established by Mir Qamaruddin Khan in the 1720s.
  • This dynasty traces its origins to the Mughal Empire.
  • During the reign of the Mughal Emperor, Muhammad Shah, he was given the governorship of Deccan in 1721 along with the title of “Asaf Jah”.
  • After just one year, Mir Qamaruddin came back to the north to become the Wazir. However, owing to a rebellion in the Deccan he returned there in 1724.
  • In doing so, he transitioned from a loyal Mughal noble to a semi-independent ruler.
  • Even though detached from the imperial centre, he still recognized the over-lordship of the Mughal Emperor and never declared complete independence.
  • In this way, the Asaf Jahi dynasty was established in 1724.
  • However, it was only after defeating the Marathas in 1742 that the Nizam’s rule was properly established in the region.
  • His territory encompassed the entire plateau south of the Tapti river except for a narrow strip of land along the west coast ruled by the Marathas.
  • The Asaf Jahi empire also extended down till Trichinopoly (present day Tiruchirappalli) and Madurai and included the Golconda mines.


  • The state of Hyderabad was a part of the Mughal subah (province) of Deccan. It included Aurangabad, Bidar, Khandesh, Berar and Hyderabad.
  • Mir Qamaruddin, the Mughal governor of Deccan established his own dynasty there called the Asaf Jahi dynasty in 1724.
  • Mir Qamaruddin never declared complete independence from the Mughals.
  • By 1742, the Hyderabad State extended southwards till Trichinopoly (present day Tiruchirappalli) and Madurai including the Golconda mines.
  • By 1795, the Hyderabad state lost almost half of its area due to political rivalry with the Marathas, French and British. It lost major areas like Daulatabad, Sholapur and Ahmednagar.
  • The Nizams regained their lost territories gradually. They allied with the British to defeat Tipu Sultan and also supported them during the First War of Independence in 1857. In return, the British rewarded them with the territories of Cudappah, Khammam, Naldurg and Raichur Doab.
  • In 1948, the Hyderabad State was incorporated into the Indian Union after an action launched by the Indian Government.
  • In 1956, the Indian States were reorganized along linguistic lines. The erstwhile Hyderabad state was divided into three parts viz. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Bombay state (later divided into the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1960).



  • Built in 1591, Charminar is a monument and mosque in Hyderabad.
  • The monument was originally constructed by the fifth ruler of the Qutb Shahi Dynasty, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, after he shifted his capital from Golconda to the newly formed city of Hyderabad.
  • With its unparalleled architectural brilliance, the Charminar is a UNESCO heritage site that has grand, ornate towers attached and supported by four grand arches.
  • Situated very strategically on the east bank of the Musi river, the Charminar has the Laad Bazaar and the intricately built Makkah Masjid to its west.
  • It was constructed at the intersection of the historically significant trade route that connects the markets of Hyderabad with the port city of Machilipatnam.
  • The old city of Hyderabad was designed keeping in mind the Charminar as its centerpiece and was thus spread around it in the form of four quadrants.
  • The monument is a representation of very distinct Indo-Islamic architecture, also highlighting certain Persian architectural elements.
Falaknuma Palace

  • The Falaknuma Palace, the ‘Mirror of the Sky,’ was built a few miles from the British Residency, on a higher elevation. Both buildings were inspired by Grecian architecture.
  • The palace covered 32 acres of land (220 rooms, 22 halls, a 101 seat dining room and its own petrol pumps) and was owned by Sir Nawab Viqar Ul Umra, the then Prime Minister of the state. The construction took 9 years.
  • The Italian architect William Ward Marret designed the Palace in the shape of a scorpion using 32 types of Italian marble as an ode to the Nizam’s zodiac sign, a framework also understood as the Kedleston plan of block and arms. This architectural framework was common to all British residency buildings as well.
  • It is only in 1897, 5 years after its completion, that the sixth Nizam, Mir Mahboob Ali Khan purchased it to fulfill the purposes of a Royal Guest house.
  • The palace had once hosted the English and Russian monarchy as well as the Governor-General of India. It is a luxury hotel today.
Chowmahalla Palace

  • Chowmahalla Palace was the residence of the Nizams. It was from here that the Asaf Jahi ruled their state. Built by Nizam Salabat Jung in the 1750s, it is currently owned by Mukarram Jah, the grandson of Mir Osman Ali Khan, the seventh Nizam.
  • The word Chowmahalla means four palaces. ‘Chow’ stands for four and ‘Mahalla’ is the plural for palaces.
  • Known for its beautiful architecture, the palace is divided into two courtyards; northern and southern. There is also the Durbar Hall, known as the Grand Khilwat. It is made of marble and this is where the royal throne ‘Takht-i-Nishan’ is located. The southern courtyard is the oldest portion with four palaces.
  • The chandeliers, beautiful arches and the ornate designs of stucco work used in this palace reflect the glory of the Nizams.
  • The restoration process of the palace was undertaken in the year 2005 under the patronage of Princess Esra. It was awarded the UNESCO Asia Pacific Merit Award in 2010 for cultural heritage conservation.
  • The palace is open to public and displays a collection of artefacts, pictures of the Nizams and also vintage cars.
The King Kothi Palace

  • The King Kothi Palace was constructed by Kamal Khan (later sold to the Nizam of Hyderabad who at that time was a mere 13 years old). The Nizam moved into the new palace away from his father who lived in the Chowmahalla Palace.
  • What was peculiar about the palace was that the main gates, the corridors, doors and windows of the palace were engraved with the initials ‘KK’, signifying its owner, Kamal Khan.
  • After it became the royal residence of the young Nizam, a farman was passed that denoted that “KK” would now stand for King Kothi instead of Kamal Khan.
  • The palace had three main buildings. One was a massive library used by the Nizam and the other two faced the Eden Gardens and were used primarily for official and ceremonial purposes.
  • The buildings were built in the European style of architecture, with canopies over the windows, the sloping tiled roofs, the intricate woodwork and the classic semicircular arches.
  • As of today, only two buildings within the palace survive. The main building that now houses a hospital and the Mubarak Mansion or the Nazri Bagh that accommodates the offices of the Nizam’s private estates. To the east of the Mubarak Mansion is the Ghadial Gate and the Judi Mosque.